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Bruce Kennedy Harpsichords, Castelmuzio.

One of the world most respected harpsichord builders. 

With a workshop in a remote yet a beautiful picturesque area of Tuscany. A workshop of sweeping views of the valley to Montisi where Bruce Kennedy established the Piccola Accademia to inspire harpsichordist worldwide through masterclasses and performances.

Meeting in Florence

Meeting with Donatella Degiampietro from Laboratoria Restauro Fortepiano in Florence.

This workshop of skilled women specialises in restoration of historical keyboard instruments with great care, considered thought and dilligence.

Insightful discussions regarding the direction a restoration should take to maintain historical character and integrity.

This worshop is attached to the


To restore or not to restore?


The premise of my research is to understand the importance of the options technicians have when approaching historical keyboard instruments.

To preserve & conserve, repair, restore, or replicate.

This instrument is an example of Cristofori’s earliest surviving spinet from 1690.

The temptation over the years would be to restore this but wisely preserving this work means information can be observed regarding manufacturing techniques and materials.

Two of the rarest keyboard instruments.

On right Ebony  harpsichord: Florence circa 1700

Bartolomeo Cristofori maker.

Case in rare ebony, soundboard in cypress, keyboard in ebony and ivory 

Instrument on left

Possibly the first upright pianoforte by a student of Cristofori. Domenico del Mela circa 1739Case in cypress,soundboard in cedar, keyboard in boxwood

Possibly first upright by a student of Cristofori

Original Cristofori foreground and copy behind.


The technician responsible for preparation of the harpsichords for International Competition Musica Antiqua at the  Concertgebouw Brugge

Beautiful,beautiful Bruges a completely inspirational  city to present the historical and serine backdrop for the International Competition Musica Antiqua for harpsichord. Here 3 Bruce Kennedy instruments expertly prepared and presented for the opening day of trials.


Day 2 relaxing in Beautiful Bruges

2 days of acclimatising and shaking of jet lag by walking around the wonder of Bruges.Looking forward to joining Prof Geoffrey Lancaster AM tomorrow and sharing his experiences of winning the the 23rd Festival of Flanders International Mozart Fortepiano Competition here in Bruges back in 1986.

The International Competition Musica Antiqua international competition for harpsichord begins tomorrow.

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Beautiful Bruges. Day 1, walking around taking in the sights, sounds and smells of the Venice of the North. Having been to Venice a dozen times, my first impression of Bruges is just stunningly beautiful being easier to navigate bikes, cars, horses than the cramped walking traffic of Venice.

And my journey starts. 20 years ago I met this amazingly inspirational man, Prof Geoffrey Lancaster AM who has been the fundamental reason why I’m on this Churchill Fellowship, along with the endless support from  my amazing wife Sarah, I now begin my epic 2 month grand tour throughout Europe researching historical keyboard instruments. Be sure to look up this blog each day as there will some incredible surprises.

Introducing the next generation

My  beautiful granddaughter playing Eileen Joyce‘s Clavichord at Keys in the City a journey of keyboard instruments.

The clavichord is the oldest of the stringed keyboard instruments dating from the late 14th century.

Goff Clavichord by Thomas Goff, UK, 1950

The case work of this instrument is exquisitely decorated in gold leaf by Goff, with a scene on the underside of the lid painted by British artist Rolan Pym.

Eileen Joyce presented this instrument, along with an antique French music chair, to the people of Western Australia to mark the state’s 150th anniversary celebrations.





The Journey starts in Perth

Paul Tunzi - Keyboard Instruments

Perth is now home to some rare and significant historical keyboard instruments.

In the picture on left, The First Fleet Piano by Frederick Beck 1786

This mahogany ‘square piano’
is arguably the most historically important piano in Australia. As the first piano to arrive on Australian soil as part of the First Fleet in 1788, it holds a unique place in the cultural heritage of our country.

Instrument on far right: Bent Side Spinet by Furley Hawkins 1736

This bentside spinet is a priceless treasure, being the only extant instrument made by the English maker Furley Hawkins in the world.

Other instruments in this picture : harpsichord by Bruce Kennedy, Fortepiano by Paul McNulty, modern concert grand by Fazioli & Steinway

details of other rare instruments held in the collection by The Western Australian Academy of Performing arts can be downloaded on my site as a PDF

Journey starts before I leave


before researching the history of historical instruments by looking back, it’s important to to look forward to the future and the next generation of keyboard enthusiasts.

Keys in the City 2018 introducing the journey of  early keyboard instruments,

Clavichord, Harpsichord, Square piano and Fortepiano 


Paul Tunzi European Grand Tour Churchill Fellow


Paul Tunzi: Churchill Fellowship July -October 2018

Investigate advanced conservation techniques and the maintenance of historical keyboard instruments.

Developing knowledge and understanding to preserve the integrity of the culturally-and internationally-significant historical stringed keyboard instrument collections in Western Australia’s universities and private collections.
Researching advanced contemporary conservation and maintenance methods to preserve the structural and sonic integrity of the instruments for future performance and research.
Training from world-leading experts to develop skills in the conservation, preservation and maintenance of historical stringed keyboard instruments.Establishing relationships with international experts to assist in the identification of historical keyboard instruments to preserve, restore or replicate.